About Monopause

Menopause can happen naturally as a result of physiological changes during the aging process. It can also be induced surgically in women who have their ovaries removed (oophorectomy) with or without the removal of uterus (hysterectomy).

Under the influence of pituitary gland hormones FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinising hormone) the ovaries release the egg every month and secrete the sex hormones – estrogen and progesterone. These hormones act on the lining of the womb preparing it for pregnancy in case the egg gets fertilised by the sperm. In cases where fertilisation does not take place; the lining of the womb is shed, which we know as “periods”.
As part of aging process, the eggs or the oocytes in the ovary gradually get depleted. This causes increase in levels of FSH, LH and decrease in levels of estrogen. The oocyte depletion with the resultant hormonal changes lead to cessation of menses and absence of fertility in women. It is the decreased circulating levels of estrogen, which are responsible for the physical changes that happen during menopause.

Surgical menopause occurs when ovaries are removed. The abrupt and sudden withdrawal of the hormones can sometimes lead to severe menopausal symptoms. Removal of uterus with conservation of ovaries does not cause menopause. These women will not have periods due to removal of uterus but the ovaries are still functioning. However, they may experience menopause earlier due to some disruption of blood supply to the ovaries. Menopause can also be induced by chemotherapy or radiation therapy during cancer treatment.

What happens in the body during menopause?

Hormonal changes occur during menopause causing decrease in levels of estrogen and progesterone and increase in levels of FSH and LH. These cause the cycles to become irregular in the perimenopausal years. The cycles can be shortened, appearing as a 2-week cycle or the flow during periods may become heavy.
Sometimes the periods may be missed for a few months followed by a very heavy period. This happens due to skipped ovulation (release of egg from the ovary during the middle of the cycle). Once the periods have stopped for 12 months, menopause is said to have occurred.

Sumber: Health xchange

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